Can someone please answer these questions that is due today 4/19/18 @2pm. please.. Thank You
Neurons, Nervous System, and the Brain
Describe the basic organization of the nervous system.
Know the difference between: gray and white matter, sensory and motor, CNS and PNS, neuron and nerve
Describe the typical parts of a neuron.
Recognize differences in neuron structure and related function.
Recognize the different types of neuroglia in the CNS and PNS.
Know the relationship of neuroglia to neuron function.
Describe what factors contribute to a resting membrane potential.
Know the events that lead to an action potential and how the action potential is propagated.
Be able to differentiate between saltatory and continuous conduction. Discuss their role in speed of transmission, and any other factors that effect speed. Why are their differences in speed?
Understand the role of myelin in action potential transduction. What are the cells that produce myelin and where are they found?
Describe how a neuron processes different types of synaptic potentials.
Know examples of neurotransmitters and how they are regulated.
How do common drugs like alcohol, cocaine, and opiates affect the brain?
Consider how neuronal function would be effected if key parts such as myelin sheaths, Na/K pumps, neurotransmitter degradation/uptake or synaptic vesicle release were disrupted (consider this in terms of all the major players-the list below is a good place to look for candidates).
Be able to define or use in a sentence the following terms: neuroglia, myelin sheath, dendrites, synapse, resting potential, threshold, action potential, depolarize, hyperpolarize, neurotransmitter, nodes of Ranvier, refractory, saltatory conduction, synaptic vesicle, synaptic cleft, integration, afferent, efferent, axon
Describe the structure, location and primary function of the layers that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Describe the overall organization of the brain. Note significant separations and paired structures.
Describe the significance of the brain stem to frontal lobe progression of “human characteristics” from base animal functions.
Name and describe the functions of the lobes of the cerebral cortex. Know the important functional differences of the pre- and postcentral gyri.
Know the location of the ventricles, and their role in the CNS.
Describe the main parts and functions of the diencephalon. Describe the importance of the limbic system.
Describe the main parts and functions of the brain stem.
Compare the cerebellar and cerebral cortical structure.
Describe the regulating functions of the cerebellum.
Know the functions of the cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus, Broca’s area, medulla oblongata, Wernicke area, corpus callosum, pituitary, amygdala, and each of the lobes.
Describe the components of a peripheral nerve.
What’s up with all the nerves in the abdominal region? How is the autonomic nervous system involved?
Know the overall organization of the spinal cord including regions of gray and white matter and regional differences such as the cervical and lumbar enlargements.
Describe the connections responsible for reflex arcs and why they are organized in this way. Why do reflexes exist?
What is the significance of Phineas Gage and how did he help us learn about the brain?
How does memory work?
Know the location and functions of the dorsal and ventral roots.
Describe the organization of nerve fibers from the spinal roots through the plexus and into the peripheral nerves.
Identify the names of the common plexuses.
Describe the functional and structural differences between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. Know the neurotransmitters and their functions for each system.
A common mnemonic for the sympathetic and parasympathetic system is to associate the sympathetic system with sex and the parasympathetic system with post-sex. Why does this help you remember the difference between these?
Briefly describe how the same neurotransmitter may cause different effects in each cell.
Be able to define or use in a sentence the following terms: meninges, gyrus, sulcus, basal nuclei, cortex, interneuron, hemisphere, plexus, preganglionic, postganglionic.
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